How to Make the Perfect Homemade Garlic Bread

Homemade garlic bread

Got leftover garlic? One of the all-time best uses for garlic, extra or not, is garlic bread. Think of a buttery slice beside your plate of spaghetti as some old favorite red sauce joint. That’s the good stuff.

The only problem is that too often garlic bread disappoints. There’s not enough butter, or it’s greasy. The garlic is raw and overwhelming, or sparse and tasteless. The bread is too chewy, rather than contrasting soft interior with crunchy crust.

Today we’re here to remedy all your garlicky woes with our recipe for homemade garlic bread. If you’ve found yourself collecting extra cloves from your Blue Apron box, grab six of them right now, and let’s make some garlic bread.

Read more: How to Make Garlic Confit

homemade garlic bread ingredients

Garlic Bread Recipe

You’ll want to pick up a good loaf of Italian bread, preferably from a beloved local bakery. You want it to be soft inside and crusty on the outside—nothing too dense here. Grab a stick of softened salted butter, your pepper grinder, and those six cloves of garlic

Now, let’s multitask. At the same time, preheat the oven to 350°F and chop your garlic cloves very finely with the salt or press them on the microplane to make a paste

In a small bowl, combine the garlic with the stick of butter and some black pepper and squish together to combine them. This might take a bit of elbow grease.

Cut your loaf of bread in half lengthwise, then spread the butter thickly on bottom half.

Replace the top half, and wrap the whole loaf in a sheet of foil. Place the loaf on a baking sheet, and bake for 10 minutes, until the butter is melted.

Unwrap, open the bread up, place each half butter side up, and bake for 5 more minutes, until golden around the edges.. While the bread is crisping up, grate about 1/4 cup of Parmesan cheese.

Sprinkle the cheese across the surface of both loaves, then cut each half into 2-inch wide strips. Serve hot, with plenty of napkins.

13 Types of Grains to Know

6 types of grains for cooking

Grains are an essential element of our kitchen repertoire—we cook with them basically every week. That’s because they do everything: act as the base of a salad, sop up some delicious sauce, or get mixed up and fried into grain patties. If you’re stuck eating rice and maybe the occasional bowl of quinoa, you might be overwhelmed by the selection! Here’s a guide to 13 types of grains, and some of our favorite ways to use them.

Types of Grains

Amaranth

An ancient grain that’s full of protein (it contains 30 percent more protein than rice, sorghum, and rye). It’s gluten-free, so it’s also a good grain for those with an intolerance. Amaranth is considered a native crop of Peru, an also has a long history in Mexico, where it was a major food crop of the Aztecs. With an earthy, nutty flavor, amaranth cooks up quickly in about 20 to 25 minutes. Beyond boiling it, you can also pop amaranth-like popcorn in a dry skillet. Try eating these popped grains with milk and some fruit for breakfast, or use them as topping on salads. We also like to mix it with ricotta to form delightful little savory pancakes.

barley

Barley

This high-fiber, high-protein grain has a chewy texture similar to brown rice. Just like rice it can work in a variety of dishes. Try it in everything from risotto to hearty lamb soup. Cooking barley is similar to cooking rice; cover one cup of barley with two cups water or broth and simmer for 30 to 40 minutes. Our orange-glazed tofu and barley salad is incredible, too.

bulgur wheat

Bulgur Wheat

A staple in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cooking (you may know it as the grain in tabbouleh) bulgur is made from cracked wheat that is parboiled, then dried for quick cooking. To cook, use a 1:2 grain-to-water ratio. Bring 2 cups of water to a boil, remove from heat, add in the 1 cup of bulgur, cover and let stand for 20 minutes. Since it’s easy to prepare, it makes for a quick dinner staple, like in this Saffron Bulgur Pilaf.

Farro

Farro, a nutty grain with a chewy texture, comes from a wheat strain called emmer, one of the first cereals ever to be domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. These days, farro is popular all over the world. Farro can be associated with two other wheat strains besides emmer (known as farro medio): einkorn (which goes by farro piccolo) and spelt (which goes by farro grande). The trick to farro is buying the right kind. The imported Italian farro you can get is often semi-perlato, or semi-pearled; if you buy farro that is not semi-pearled, it just needs to be soaked overnight before cooking it. Try farro in savory grain bowls, or as a nutritious twist on fried rice.

Freekeh

Freekeh has been enjoyed for centuries in countries like Syria, Lebanon and Egypt. It’s made from young wheat that is harvested while it’s still green. It’s roasted during production which gives it a slightly smoky flavor. High in fiber, it cooks up in twenty minutes, so it’s a good option when you need a healthy, quick-cooking grain. We love it with tahini long beans!

Buckwheat

Rarely consumed in its whole-grain form, buckwheat, which is derived from seeds known as buckwheat groats, is often turned into a flour, and is a popular replacement for anyone looking for gluten-free flour options. It’s also what French galettes (savory crepes) and soba noodles are made from. When buckwheat is toasted, it’s referred to as kasha, which takes only about 15-20 minutes to cook up.

types of grains: millet

Millet

Yes, it’s the main ingredient in bird seed, but millet is just as good for you as it is for your feathered friends. Millet is an ancient seed originally cultivated in Africa and China. Millet can be ground into flours for flatbreads and even, in East Africa, fermented to make beer. While there are many kinds of millet, the one most often found in US groceries stores is yellow proso. And don’t consider eating the same millet you give to the birds! That variety isn’t hulled, so it’s difficult for your human stomach to digest. An easy trick with millet is to toast it in a dry skillet for about 3 minutes before cooking; this gives it a delicious nutty flavor. Depending on what consistency you want your millet, you can vary the amount of water and cooking time, allowing you to either have a coarser, crunchier consistency, or one that is more porridge-like. We love it as a way to stuff roasted vegetables, like these squash.

types of grains: wild rice

Wild Rice

Wild rice is North America, specifically the Great Lakes region. Wild rice was a staple part of the indigenous peoples of that region. Since it grew in wetlands, it was originally harvested from canoes. Cooking wild rice requires a 1:3 wild rice-to-water ratio. Bring the water and wild rice to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer for 35-50 minutes. You know it’s done when the grains are cracked open.

types of grains: quinoa

Quinoa

Originating in the Andean region, quinoa has been a culinary staple of countries like Bolivia and Peru for thousands of years. Quinoa is the base of a popular warm breakfast drink in South America. You can get red and black quinoa, but the white version tends to be the most common in the US. Packed with protein, it’s popular with vegetarians, and the fact that it cooks up in 15 minutes has made it a favorite of whole grain cooks. At health food stores you’ll find everything from quinoa pasta to quinoa flour to flakes, godsends if you don’t eat gluten. Use quinoa as a replacement for rice, as an addition to a salad or even in veggie enchiladas.

Rice

Potentially one fo the most well known types of grains, rice is a staple for much of the world’s population. It’s particularly popular in Asia, where it is believed to have been domesticated almost 10,000 years ago. Of course there are all kinds of rice, from brown to Jasmine, and different varieties are used in different dishes. As a grain, it’s incredibly versatile, and makes its way into all kinds of world cuisines, from Mexican to Indian.

Spelt

Spelt, also known as dinkel wheat, is an ancient species of wheat. Historically, it staple grain in Europe from the Bronze age onwards. Nowadays it’s commonly found marketed as a health food, particularly as a flour for breads. But you can also use the whole grain in salads or as a replacement for pasta.

Toast the teff & spices
Toasting teff for chilli

Teff

Teff is a tiny grain, about as small as a poppy seed. This tiny grain was once popular with nomadic cultures in Ethiopia and Eritrea where it has grown for centuries. In Ethiopia it’s ground into flour and makes the spongy bread injera that is a base of Ethiopian cuisine. You can buy teff as a grain and as a flour. Pop it in a chili, or use the flour to make wholesome pancakes.

Wheatberry

Often used in salads, wheatberry is the entire kernel of wheat, except for the hull. Since the kernel is left intact, that means so are most of the nutrients. The result is a tan-colored whole grain that looks a bit like brown rice. When cooked, wheatberries have a chewy bite and a slightly nutty taste, which pairs well with dried fruit. You can even use them to grow your own wheat sprouts.

Now that you’ve met all these types of grains, we dare you to quiz yourself! Can you name these individual grains?

different types of grains
(answers to types of grains quiz: quinoa, millet, wheatberry, bulgur wheat, farro, freekeh

This post was written by Anna Brones, a food and travel writer based in Paris, France who has a love for bikes, coffee and all things organic.

How to Freshen Stale Bread

soon to be stale bread

Unless you’re a total carb-o-phile, or you share a household with eternally hungry teenage boys, you may not get through a loaf of preservative-free bakery bread before it gets stale. That means, sadly, that extra bread winds up in the trash. Not anymore! This essential kitchen tip can help you freshen stale bread and reduce food waste.

To start: One way to extend the shelf life of fresh bread is to store it in the fridge or the freezer. The cold will preserve a loaf’s lifespan, but it will also rob the bread of its crisp exterior and chewy crumb. What to do about the problem created by our preservation solution?

Don’t worry, we’ve got a solution to that too. The easiest way to freshen a stale loaf of bread is simply to stick it in the oven. Take your loaf right our of the freezer or refrigerator and pop it into a 475°F oven. After to three minutes, the loaf will be hot and crispy again.

This method is best suited for bakery bread. Unlike its more processed counterpart, pre-sliced sandwich bread, bakery bread doesn’t contain any preservatives. That means it will become stale or moldy in just a few days if left out on the counter. Sandwich bread, on the other hand, is often happy on the counter top for up to a week.

Ribollita soup with stale bread

Once it’s out of the oven, you can use the bread in recipes, like this Tuscan Ribollita, or just enjoy it with a smear of good butter.

The Sourdough Pancake That’s Keeping Gage & Tollner’s Starter Alive

Blue Apron is teaming up with chefs across the country to support Feeding America®. To participate, head over to our social media channels. Share our Facebook post or tag a friend on Instagram, and Blue Apron will donate an additional $5 to Feeding America, up to $50,000. Thanks to Caroline Schiff and the team at Gage & Tollner for sharing their savory sourdough pancake recipe. 

a sourdough pancake
Golden and crispy

Do you ever crave old-world elegance? You’re not alone. That’s exactly what the team at Gage & Tollner was hoping to revive when they set about re-opening this century-old Brooklyn establishment. 

The original Gage & Tollner was a cornerstone of dining in Brooklyn. It served meat and seafood to celebrities and locals for over a hundred years. It officially closed in 2004, and the building saw a series of short term tenants before lying dormant. Finally, a team of established New York City restaurant veterans stepped in to breathe life into this historic space. 

Gage & Tollner’s triumphant reopening was set for Spring 2020. When the team realized that the COVID-19 pandemic would force them to delay, it wasn’t long before their thoughts turned to their sourdough starter, Edna Lewis. If they left her alone, she’d perish. Pastry Chef Caroline Schiff took it upon herself to keep the starter alive, and she’s been creating quite a few projects in the meantime. 

This is Caroline’s recipe for a savory pancake made with sourdough discard. She encourages you to get creative here. You can swap the scallions for a quarter cup of chopped kimchi, grated carrots, or herbs. A handful of cheddar cheese with some sliced jalapeños is also delicious. As long as it’s about a quarter to a third cup of stuff, you’re good to go. 

Sourdough Pancake by Caroline Schiff

Makes one 8” pancake

Ingredients:

  • 3 Tbs neutral oil like canola or grapeseed, butter and ghee will also yield delicious results
  • 1 cup active but unfed sourdough discard *this works best with same day discard at room temp, but older stuff is ok too! Just let it come to room temp and give it a stir
  • Pinch of kosher salt
  • 2 tsp white sesame seeds
  • 1/4 cup sliced scallions

Preparation: 

1. Heat the oil in an 8″ nonstick or cast-iron skillet over medium-high heat.

2. Season the discard with a good pinch of salt and add it to the hot pan. Swirl the pan to spread the oil out in an even layer. 

3. Top with the sesame seeds and scallions in an even layer.

4. When the edges start to set, and you see bubbles forming  (about 3 minutes), carefully flip the pancake using a large spatula or tongs. You can peek at the bottom as it cooks; if it seems like it’s getting a little too dark, just reduce the heat a bit.

5. Gently flip and fry on the other side until crisp, another 2 to 3 minutes or so.

6. When the pancake is golden and crispy on both sides, remove from the pan, slice into wedges and enjoy hot, maybe dipped in some soy sauce or sriracha depending on your fillings.

Best Bread Recipes: Advice from the Blue Apron Test Kitchen

There are a lot of good reasons to bake bread at home. For baking enthusiasts, the process can be a source of comfort. For novice bakers, now is a good time to take on a new challenge. Whether you’re looking to tackle a kitchen project, or just in the mood for a sandwich, a homemade loaf is the way to go. These are the recipes that Blue Apron Test Kitchen Chefs (and friends!) turn to when the bread box is empty. 

loaf of bread
Who wants a sandwich?

A Peasant Bread with a Beautiful Crust 

This peasant loaf from Serious Eats is a great option for an intermediate baker. Misting the loaf while it’s in the oven gives the finished bread a satisfyingly chewy crust.  

— Diane Casner

a crusty loaf of bread
This loaf is worth the extra work

An Easy No Yeast Flatbread Recipe 

This flatbread recipe from Bon Appetit is a perfect solution for a busy weeknight. It doesn’t call for yeast, it has a short rest time, and it only requires light kneading. The ingredients are also pretty basic, so you can whip it up without much planning.

— Sarah Entwistle

A Super Savory Cheese Bread

Looking for something a little more exciting? This blue cheese swirl bread from The New York Times is soft, fluffy, cheesy, and beautiful. 

— Alex Saggiomo

A Not-Too-Complicated Sourdough 

If you’ve been curious about keeping a sourdough starter, there’s no time like the present. The Perfect Loaf has bread recipes, starter instructions, and ideas for how to use your sourdough discards. 

— Laura Henderson

A Slightly Sweet Oat and Raisin Loaf 

This recipe from America’s Test Kitchen gets rolled in oats before it heads into the oven. It gives the finished product a toasty, crunchy exterior. The slight sweetness from the raisins makes this a great option for morning toast.

— Ashley Giddens

Make Your Own Oatmeal Raisin Bread

The responsible thing to do right now is to stay put, so that’s what the Blue Apron Test Kitchen is doing. Just because we’re cooped up at home, that doesn’t mean we’re not cooking. For now, you’ll find us in our home kitchens, chopping, frying, and baking up a storm. 

This week, Chef Ashley Giddens pre-heated her oven and spent some time with her pantry staples. Here’s the story, in her words:

I always have a bag of oats in my pantry. To be honest, I’m not sure why it’s there. I don’t even eat that much oatmeal! It just feels like one of those things I should always have. 

Recently, grocery stores have been all sold out of my favorite sliced bread. In search of a substitute, I flipped through my favorite bread book: Bread Illustrated from America’s Test Kitchen. The first thing to catch my eye was a loaf of oatmeal raisin bread; I had never even thought of putting oats into a sliced bread, so I was intrigued. Best of all, the recipe called for things I already had stocked: oats, bread flour, yeast, salt, milk, butter, brown sugar, and raisins.

This recipe was super easy to make. My favorite part was rolling the whole dough loaf in raw the oats before baking, which resulted in a super crunchy and gorgeous exterior. The next morning, I sliced and toasted two pieces. My husband had his with a simple gloss of butter, and I opted for a more *extra* approach with cream cheese, cinnamon, and a pinch of sea salt. 

delicious

The Toast Topping We Can’t Get Enough Of

Avocado toast: a foodie breakfast trend that became a serious classic. Now that the trend is a trend no longer, it’s time to explore the full range of possibilities that the healthful yet delectable breakfast presents to us.

Besides the creamy avocado topping, the best part of avocado toast is its willingness to be customized. Sure, it’s delicious when left simple (mashed avocado, salt), but you can add on to this great start based on your tastes and cravings.

At the simple end of the spectrum: herbs and spices. Freshly torn basil will remind you of summer; minced cilantro leaves will remind you of guacamole. A sprinkle of za’atar nods to the Middle East, while a dose of Aleppo pepper (one of our favorites, as you’ll see below) balances out the avocado’s fattiness.

So, what are you waiting for? Grab your ripe avocado and two pieces of good whole grain or sourdough bread. The rest of the ingredients pictured below are some of the other toppings you might want to add.

Read more: How to Choose a Ripe Avocado

Avocado Toast | Blue Apron

Once you have the ingredients, cut your avocado open around the pit. If you’re not sure how to accomplish this move, watch our video.  Scoop out the flesh into a small bowl. Mash the avocado and season it well with salt. A little lemon juice never hurts either.

Avocado Toast | Blue Apron

Toast two slices of bread. Spread the mashed avocado to the edges on each slice. Sprinkle with a bit more salt. If you want, you can stop right there.

Avocado Toast | Blue Apron

If you want to choose your own adventure and continue, here are two things you can do:

  • Use Aleppo pepper or Piment d’Esplette to add a little kick to your toast
  • Fry an egg and slam it on top. When the gooey yolk meets the avocado, great taste happens.
Avocado Toast | Blue Apron
Avocado Toast | Blue Apron

How will you top your avocado toast?

Get the whole recipe below.

Avocado Toast

INGREDIENTS
2 slices of your favorite bread
1 ripe avocado
1 teaspoon piment d’esplette
Optional: 2 eggs

If you’re using them, first start the eggs: heat a small pan over medium-low heat and add oil to cover the bottom. Add the eggs and cook 2 to 3 minutes, or until the whites are set but the yolks are still runny (or until they reach your desired degree of doneness). While the eggs are cooking, season them with salt. Remove the eggs from the heat.

While the eggs are cooking, toast the bread. Prepare the avocado by scooping the flesh out of the skin and mashing in a bowl with some salt.

Spread the avocado on your toast. Top with salt, piment d’esplette if using. If you’ve made the eggs, put one on each piece of toast. Eat!

Homemade Biscuits with Strawberry Jam

Biscuits with Strawberry Jam | Blue Apron

Stop what you’re doing. Put down what you’re eating. The best biscuit recipe you’ve ever encountered is at hand, and it’s time to make biscuits for breakfast. To pair with the rich, flaky breakfast breads, we’ve got a pared-down version of homemade strawberry jam.

Biscuits with Strawberry Jam | Blue Apron
Biscuits with Strawberry Jam3

What makes a great biscuit? The quality of its flakes. That means that when you pull apart the two halves of a biscuit, the crumb tears into flakes. Biscuits should be light, yet rich. The outside should be crisp and golden, while the inside must be soft and, as already mentioned, flaky. 

To achieve these requirements, a few tips. First, you must use cold butter and buttermilk. By keeping the butter very, very cold (as in, straight from the fridge), you make sure that little crumbs of it remain isolated in the dough, separating the flour into “layers.” Keeping the buttermilk cold helps preserve the cool temperature of the biscuits–until they hit the oven. Then, when the butter crumbs finally melt, the flour “layers” turn into those precious flakes.

Biscuits with Strawberry Jam | Blue Apron

We cut our biscuits out with a small round cutter–but you could use a glass.

Biscuits with Strawberry Jam | Blue Apron

While the biscuits are baking, cube a lot of strawberries, and let them simmer with sugar in a pot. They’re reduce and thicken, and that’s your jam. Pull the biscuits from the oven. You must eat them warm. Split them in half, spread with butter, and dollop on the jam. Yum!

Get the whole recipe below.

Homemade Biscuits with Strawberry Jam

INGREDIENTS
2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
4 teaspoons baking powder
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 1/4 teaspoons salt
1 tablespoon sugar
1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons cold butter, cut into small pieces
1 cup cold buttermilk

Preheat the oven to 450°F.

In a bowl, combine the flour, baking powder, baking soda, salt and sugar.

Using your hands, “cut” or “crumble” the butter into the flour mixture by rubbing the butter and flour mixture together until the butter is very thin and evenly distributed.

Using a spatula, wooden spoon or your hands, stir in the buttermilk and gently mix just until a dough forms, trying not to mix too much as this will toughen the dough.

Place the dough onto a floured surface and roll or press out until about 1” thick. Using a biscuit cutter or an inverted drinking cup, cut out 12 3” discs by pressing the cutter straight down as you cut—do not twist the cutter as this compacts and seals the edges of your biscuit, making them less light and flaky. (If you have extra dough, you can reroll it, but the biscuits won’t be as light and fluffy.) Place the cut out biscuits on a greased sheet pan and bake, on the middle rack and turning the pan halfway through, for 14 to 17 minutes, or until lightly browned and cooked through.

Serve with your choice of garnish, butter, jam or make egg sandwiches with them!

Cinnamon French Toast

French Toast Ingredients | Blue Apron

You may think of French toast as a delicious, crave-worthy breakfast, and the gooey fried bread definitely does fall on the list of best-ever brunch and breakfast recipes. But French toast also functions as an ingenious waste-not solution for stale bread, much in the same vein as these 8 dinners that breathe new life into old bread.

French Toast Ingredients | Blue Apron

While the French weren’t the only cooks to revitalize leftover slices of good bread in a mix of milk and egg before crisping the slices up in a pan, they did christen this dish pain perduwhich means “lost bread.” In fact, a more accurate name would be “not-lost bread,” since by making French toast, you actually save slices of bread that might otherwise have gone into the trash.

We try our best not to waste food here at Blue Apron, and so we admire French toast’s ability to make the most out of an extra ingredient.  To make our super simple French toast, all you do is whisk together some milk and eggs, with sugar, vanilla extract, and cinnamon for extra flavor.

Not in the mood for breakfast?  Here’s How to Re-Crisp Your Bread in the Fridge

Leave the bread in this custard mixture for at least 5 minutes or up to 20. Then, get frying. We melt butter in a frying pan over medium heat and let slices cook for about 3 minutes per side, until fully brown.

Blue Apron French Toast | Breakfast Series

Serve with real maple syrup, perhaps some fruit, and plenty of crispy bacon!

Blue Apron French Toast Recipe

Get the whole recipe below.

Blue Apron French Toast Recipe Continue reading “Cinnamon French Toast”

Five-Ingredient Lemon Bread Pudding – Made with Croissants!

Five Ingredient Lemon Bread Pudding

When we go to invent new five-ingredient desserts for you, our test kitchen team really puts on its thinking cap. When you limit the shopping list to a mere five entries, each element really has to hold its own. In this bread pudding, croissants bring a lot to the table.

One of the keys to good bread pudding is using bread (or croissants) that are stale. That means they do a better job of absorbing flavor and richness from the custard you’ll mix together using half-and-half and eggs.

To start, all you do is cut your croissants, preferably day-old ones, into pieces like the ones you see above. You can also just pull them apart if you don’t even want to deal with a cutting board.

In order to give your bread pudding a little bit of a twist, add some lemon juice and lemon zest to the custard mixture of eggs, cream, and brown sugar. Yum.

Pour that over your baking dish full of croissant pieces. Just like this:

Five Ingredient Lemon Bread Pudding

Honestly, that’s the only step you need to know. Because then, after letting the custard mixture sink into the croissants for half an hour, you put the whole thing into the oven.

While there, the croissants will puff up and brown on top.
Five Ingredient Lemon Bread Pudding Pull the pan from the oven and scoop out portions while the bread pudding is still warm.Five Ingredient Lemon Bread Pudding Five Ingredient Lemon Bread Pudding
Top with whipped cream and a little extra lemon zest if you have any.
IMG_2271 Five Ingredient Lemon Bread Pudding

Enjoy!
Get the whole recipe below.

Lemon Bread Pudding

INGREDIENTS
2 eggs
2 cups half-and-half
1/2 cup light brown sugar
4 croissants (stale if possible – stale bread always works better for bread pudding)
1 lemon

Preheat the oven to 325°F.

Cut or break the croissants into medium sized pieces and place into an approximately 10-by-7-inch baking dish.

Using a peeler, take the skin off the lemon and mince the zest. Cut the lemon into quarters.

Whisk the eggs, half-and-half, light brown sugar, lemon zest and the juice from 2 lemon wedges (or all 4, if you’d like it to be more lemony), until thoroughly combined.

Add the egg mixture to the baking dish. Let this mixture soak for at least 10 minutes or up to 30 minutes.

Bake the pudding for 1 hour or until the middle is set. Remove and let cool and completely set for about 20 minutes. Serve plain or with a scoop of vanilla ice cream or dollop of whipped cream.

All About Flatbreads

To conclude our three-part series on bread, we’re actually going back to the beginning:

Flatbreads from Blue APron

Flatbreads are the first breads. So, while yeast and quick breads have their own delectable attributes, they’ll never be able to claim what flatbreads definitively can, being “the original” bread.

What’s a bit less clear about the history of flatbread is whether the leavened or unleavened type came first. It doesn’t really matter – both have their own, delicious stories – but it’s worth noting that the two distinct types exist. So if some actually do contain yeast, what, then defines a flatbread? According to Naomi Duguid, author of Flatbreads and Flavors, “it’s loose.”

The closest we come to a definition is that flatbread is flatbread because of the way that it’s cooked. Long before there were ovens – or stationary cooking equipment at all – nomadic tribes needed to make food quickly and while on-the-go. Waiting for the consistent cooking temperature that’s required to bake a loaf of bread was pretty much out of the question. Instead? They used hot stones. In this way, flatbread’s inception is baked into various cultures around the world, based on items from their natural environments.

“Flatbreads are fabulously ingenious solutions for turning all kinds of seeds and grains in to something you can eat,” says Naomi, who has a long and intimate relationship with an international variety of breads. As a food anthropologist, teacher, and author, Naomi believes food is a lens through which to view new people and places. No matter how far-flung a bread’s origin, though, “bread, for me, has always been the taste of home,” says Naomi, “something I’ve always felt connected to. It’s always been ‘normal’, not exotic, not even special. It’s a home thing.”

So, it is with this down-to-earth view that we’ll go around the globe to explore the original bread–flatbread–that still permeates a vast array of people and cultures.

IMG_2284Matzo
Regardless of your religious affiliation, you’ve likely heard of matzo. And, perhaps, you’ve heard the story of matzo’s creation, which is now a staple food at Passover feasts (to honor the Jewish exodus from Egypt, during which there wasn’t time to let bread rise, there is a pause on consuming leavened bread during this holiday and people eat the thin, cracker-like bread as everything from soup topper to standalone snack). Fast forward to a modern-day anecdote: On a trip to Israel, Naomi met an elder Iraqi woman who shared a secret about how to keep the local men from questioning whether the matzo has been made with leavened dough. Because there are sometimes there holes poked in the matzo dough, it can bubble up during the cooking process, looking very similar to a puffy, leavened bread. So, to avoid any culinary disputes, women will quickly “smack down” the matzo when it’s cooking to ensure its super-flatness (and argument-proof-ness).

IMG_2290Chapati
Moving a bit east from Israel, let’s go to India for our next unleavened flatbread. Chapati (sometimes called roti, though “roti” is actually just a term for any type of flatbread in South Asia) is cooked in a hot, dry skillet. Like matzo, chapati can play an eye trick, appearing to be leavened as its center starts to bubble up and create a dome. But, warns Naomi, it is an illusion! And if you think about it, the illusion makes sense. In addition to whole wheat flour, the traditional chapatti flour, water is the other primary ingredient (sometimes salt or a little oil, too). And what happens when water faces high temperatures? Steam! So that balloon in the center of the pan is simply a little flatbread sauna, which actually helps cook the bread from the inside very quickly. When it’s patted down, you’re left with this simple, mild flatbread that pairs very well with many Indian, Pakistani, or Nepali dishes (regions where the bread is most commonly found).

IMG_2286Crepe
Whether you prefer sweet or savory (or both) you can find a delicious crepe in many countries these days. Thought to have originated in Brittany, France, crepes are a slightly more complex flatbread, at least when it comes to ingredient count. While absent a leavening agent, they do contain more than just grain and water. Eggs, milk, butter, salt, sugar and oil contribute to their decadence (and that’s before you stuff them with an indulgent combo like ham and cheese or nutella and bananas). To make crepe batter, you can use a blender or food processor, but be sure not to overmix, as that can add too much air to the batter, and leave you with a puffy crepe that won’t quite uphold its expectation of delicacy. The transformation of this batter into the crepe itself can be a whimsical thing to witness, as a rozel (a small wooden and toothless “rake”) is used to rhythmically twirl the batter around a hot, greased pan. Just the kind of visual warm-up your stomach needs.

IMG_2287Tortilla
To round out the unleavened flatbreads, let’s look at what’s been cited as the most popular flatbread in North America: the tortilla. We all know there are flour and corn varieties (we may have even disputed the merits of each the last time we went out for Mexican food) but since we’re focused on the ancient in this post, let’s talk about the corn variety, which came first. While simple in its total number of ingredients, the process of getting these ingredients isn’t necessarily so easy. In order to be digestible, corn has to be treated–ground kernels by themselves aren’t going to make a very edible bread. As Naomi helps explain, there is a lime-based alkaline that helps unlock the nutrients of the corn, after which it can be ground. This initial, wet ground grain has a paste-like consistency, is called masa, and can be found in specialty Mexican stores in the refrigerated section. It can also be transformed once more. When masa is dried and turned into powered, it becomes masa harina, a fine corn flour much more easily found in general grocery stores. This type simply requires water to be reconstituted and turned into tortilla dough (or arepas!). No matter which corn version you chose to start with, you’re bound to end up with perfect canvas for carne asada, guacamole, and beans, or whatever you like to stuff your tacos full of.

Ingera
Moving on to leavened flatbreads, we’ll head east again, as leavening knows no geographic boundaries. Ingera, the national bread of Ethiopia and Eritrea, is a sour, spongy flatbread that acts as a utensil as much as a food. The traditional grain used for ingera is teff, which is small, iron-rich, and gluten-free. The teff is mixed together with water to form ingera batter, which is left to sit for days and ferment. That fermentation process is what makes ingera a leavened bread. Naomi explains that ingera is traditionally cooked with a clay plate placed over a fire, onto which the fermented, liquid-y batter is poured in a spiral motion – starting at the edges and going in to the center. The dough is never flipped, and once a cover goes on, you “just let the steam do its thing.” While this whole process may seem simple – two ingredients, no flipping or fussing – Naomi reminds us: “When you have a complex dish, it’s easier to hide things. It’s much harder to perfect something so basic.” So the next time you head out for Ethiopian food (highly recommended), be sure to pause and appreciate the perfectly prepared ingera delivered to your table.

IMG_2288Nan
Like “roti,” nan (or naan) is just another word for bread in many countries. Nan is frequently found throughout West, Central and South Asia, and takes on a number of variations depending on where in the world you are. But the one common thread – and what distinguishes it from roti – is how it’s cooked. Nan is traditionally made in a tandoor, which is a circular oven with fire at the bottom. Watching nan cook may be almost as enjoyable as eating it. The practiced technique involves slapping the dough up against the sides of the oven and letting it just stick there, so the bottom gets cooked by direct heat and the top by the surrounding convection heat. Like ingera, nan is also never flipped, which allows its top side to become a tender and chewy contrast to a slightly crispy bottom. Another contributor to this delicious softness? Yogurt. Many nan recipes will include this little bit of dairy, which makes the dough smoother and easier to stretch out. Try it with palak paneer or chicken tikka masala.

IMG_2285Focaccia
While still considered a flatbread, this leavened bread takes the cake in the height competition when matched against the others we’ve discussed. From in Italy, focaccia is for all intents and purposes a version of pizza. Rolled out and flattened by hand, focaccia dough often receives a little hole-poking before going into a hot stone-bottom or hearth oven. Naomi recalls a fond focaccia memory: while traveling in the mountains of Portugal, she happened upon village with a big, solid stone structure that contained an enormous wood oven. Local women sat around baking loaves of wheat-rye bread. But while these voluminous loaves were pushed to the back of the oven – where the temperature was high and even – they didn’t waste any of the dough or the real estate in the front of the oven. As they broke off much smaller, uneven pieces of the dough and drizzled them with honey, the almost-immediate aroma drew quite a crowd. Local children had come running over, asking for a taste of what was perfectly cooked and just an arm’s reach into the mouth of the giant oven. A slightly risky grab, perhaps, but can you blame them?

So there you have it. Quick bread, yeast bread, and now flatbread–all three part of the diverse and historic story that is bread, a food that much of the world depends on and delights in. Breads feeds both our stomachs and souls, and, if we let it, bread can also be something that challenges us to ask “why,” just like Naomi. So let us all follow her lead, if only briefly, and take a note from her culinary playbook. Here’s to being inquisitive about our food, where it comes from and who’s behind it. Especially when it comes to bread.

8 Dinners That Breathe New Life into Old Bread

Day Old BaguetteApril is all about rebirth. We’ve talked about pretty young herbs and fresh sweet cream, cleaning your pots and pans so they’re good as new and hiring a new chef (ha!). We love applying this idea to the kitchen, as there are few ingredients in your pantry that can’t be given new life with the right touch. Bread is no exception.

Watch the Video: How to Re-Crisp Your Bread in the Fridge

Some of the most delicious meals in the world’s repertoire–yes, the entire world–originate in cooks’ desires not to waste any precious bread. The recipes that follow all make use of day-old bread–and in fact they embrace the bread’s age. None of them are as tasty with fresh bread as they are with slightly stale baguette or country round.

Read more: All About Yeast Breads

Check back soon for a breakfast application, also known as French toast.

1. Marjoram Garlic Chicken with Jersey Tomato Panzanella

PanzanellaPanzanella is a salad that places croutons front and center, instead of treating them like an afterthought. Long eaten by Italian peasants to prevent bread waste, our panzanella’s got all kinds of gourmet touches, from crispy-skinned chicken to fresh herbs.

 

2. Kale Caesar Salad with Homemade Croutons

Kale Caesar with Homemade CroutonsAnd now, to put croutons back in their rightful place: atop the salad. Stale bread makes the best crispy and flavorful croutons. Believe it.

 

3. Roasted Fennel over Linguine with Lemon Ricotta and Castelvetrano Olives & Breadcrumbs

Fennel Pasta with BreadcrumbsTake your bread and pulverize it into breadcrumbs, then crisp those up in a pan to make a pasta topping that gives Parmesan a run for its money.

4. Salmon Caesar Salad

Salmon CaesarA Caesar salad has a few important parts: crunchy romaine lettuce, crispy croutons, and good creamy dressing. That means that your previously neglected bread is now

 

5. Tuscan Ribollita

RibollitaThis rustic, Tuscan soup has its origins in the Middle Ages, when feudal servants would gather day-old bread from their lords’ banquet tables and use it to thicken their own potages.

6. Grilled Cheese Sandwiches with Fontina & Tomato

Grilled CheeseDid you know? Slightly stale bread becomes crunchier in the pan while you’re frying up your grilled cheese.

 

7. Manhattan Fish Chowder with Crusty Bread

Manhattan Fish ChowderCrusty bread is prime for dipping–its crunch is the perfect complement to the bright fish soup.

8. Pan-Seared Salmon with Cranberry-Walnut Stuffing

Stuffing | Blue ApronWhen you use stale bread for stuffing, the cubes have the opportunity to absorb all the delicious goodness of the other stuffing ingredients.